Thursday, June 4, 2020

Representations of the Past in The Seafarer and The Wanderer - Literature Essay Samples

The poems The Seafarer and The Wanderer are both elegiac in nature: each speaker delivers a reflective monologue about their journey from the past they have lost to the solitary present they face, although there are limitations to the past’s disappearance, as it clearly lingers in their memories of ‘days of toil’. The ‘ubi sunt’ formula used in both is a traditional method to voice a realisation of loss and the transitory nature of life: for example, in a rhetorical set-piece in The Wanderer it takes the form of a list. ‘Hwà ¦r cwom mearg? Hwà ¦r cwom mago? Hwà ¦r cwom maÞÞumgyfa? Hwà ¦r cwom symbla gesetu? Hwà ¦r sindon seledreamas?’ The poet here expresses how distant the past now really is, as the hypothetical wise man asks after treasure-givers and the place of banquets in vain, as these fundamental examples from his past life are now gone. This rhetorical despair is emphasized by the repeated use of ‘Hwà ¦r’, as he appears to be in denial about the permanent loss of his familiar surroundings. The oral tradition in which Old English manuscript poetry had its roots influences this structure, as the mono-syllabic word demanding answers directly from any potential audience creates a striking new ‘movement’ within the poem, as though allowing a performer the chance to differ his intonations to re-engage attention and lend emphasis to the following moment of realization. He follows this with another repeated structure, a triadic structure of laments introduced by the vocative ‘Eala’: ‘Eala beorht bune! Eala byrnwiga! Eala Þeodnes Þrym!’ The shift from ‘Hwà ¦r’ to ‘Eala’, rhetorical question to exclamation of lament, conveys the loss of the familiar without describing the actual process of his exile and losing those individual aspects of his life. The ‘Eala’ movement, however, changes its subjects; the gleaming cup, armoured warrior and prince’s glory he bemoans the loss of in these lines are more traditionally celebrated in heroic tales than the quotidian joys of the hall he previously mentioned. This escalation allows for greater dramatic power in the laments, as he is bewailing the loss of his culture’s ideals, as well as his personal experience. If Pasternack’s suggestion that in manuscript poetry, textual techniques substituted for performance context, is accepted, this entire movement may be read as the substitute for a performer acting out loss, as the questions and laments are emotive explanations directly to the reader that communicate his pain at the loss of his past. The Seafarer does not directly refer to a past that the speaker has lost in order to be in exile on the ocean, in the same way as The Wanderer refers to his battles and kinsmen; instead the objects or locations associated with the land (which are similar to the objects mentioned in ‘The Wanderer) are represented through a hypothetical man on the shore, and the sense of the past that the speaker must have had is conveyed by the contrast of a normal, comforting life with his harsh, lonely time at sea. ‘The man who lives most happily on land’ cannot truly know how harsh the winter at sea is; along with the pathetic fallacy in ‘bihongen hrimgicelum; hà ¦gl scurum flaeg’ (‘hung round with icicles; hail flew in storms’- the intensity is conveyed particularly through ‘scur’ commonly meaning a metaphorical shower of blows as well as a literal storm) the Seafarer is ‘winemà ¦gum bidroren’, deprived of dear kinsmen. The u se of ‘bidroren’ informs the reader that he once had kinsmen but has lost them, and this vivid sense of loss is also intensified by the fact that The Wanderer also uses this word in ‘dreame bidrorene’, referring to rulers lying deprived of all joys, and used in that phrase it is a common motif for Old English elegiac poetry, communicating tragic bereavement and acknowledgement of transience. The homiletic ‘ubi sunt’ formula is also represented here, through lines 80-86. ‘Dagas sind gewitene ealle onmedlan eorÞan rices; nà ¦ron nu cyningas ne caseras ne goldgiefan swylce iu wà ¦ron, Þonne hi mà ¦st mid him mà ¦rÞa gefremedon ond on dryhtlicestum dome lifdon. Gedroren is Þeos duguà ° eal; dreamas sind gewitene.’ Although ‘ubi sunt’ was derived from Latin poetry, the lament for grander days here is expressed in terms with specific significance to an audience familiar with Germanic heroic poetry, especially the mention of ‘glorious deeds’ and ‘magnificent renown’. With this familiarity, The Seafarer makes the tale of a man alone in the harsh elements, separated from his past by literal distance and complete difference in circumstance, more relevant by reminding its audience that the familiar and grand alike fade away and become the inaccessible past. The poet of The Wanderer also has another reference to a past he is not connected to, and which therefore is truly foreign to him: the phrase ‘eald enta geweorc’ (also present in another elegy from the Exeter Book, ‘The Ruin’) was used primarily to discuss the Roman ruins for which there was widespread Anglo-Saxon admiration, but could refer to any relic from an ancient culture. In the context of Line 87, the speaker of The Wanderer is imagining the modes of death its inhabitants met: destroyed by battle, torn apart by wolf, buried by another grieving warrior. Christine Fell argues that this implicitly Roman architecture and these universal rather than specific descriptions of death provide a contrast to the purposefully Anglo-Saxon rhetorical laments for the treasure-giver or the joys of the hall (in the already discussed ‘Hwà ¦r’ movement). The Roman past invokes thoughts on transience and mortality; the Anglo-Saxon specificity then forces th e audience to apply those thoughts of the inadequate and earthly to the context of their culture. Another interpretation of the historical context is that the speaker of The Wanderer is now as distant from his own past as he is from a cultural one that he never experienced: the poem didactically advises that a man who stands in front of the ‘eald enta geweorc’ and wisely reflects upon it would recall far off a large number of slaughters (‘feor oft gemon wà ¦lsleahta worn’- the prominent placement of ‘feor’ after the caesura again highlighting his distance from his past). The vagueness around these slaughters implies that he is remembering both the battles he has actually experienced, and the battles of a long-gone civilization through communal memory; they are the same to him now, as he is so far from his own past. Riedinger argued that Christianity in early medieval manuscript poetry complicates the theme of home, as the poets in both The Seafarer and The Wanderer treat it as an elusive object of desire due to the simultaneous longings for a secure home on earth and an eternal one beyond that. In both of these poems the comforting home of the past is left behind for their current exile, which could be seen as a path or pilgrimage to heaven; in The Seafarer specifically, Christianity’s presence appears to nullify or supplant the past. In lines 100-101 the poet describes how the gold gathered during someone’s time on earth would not help them if their soul is full of sins before God: ‘ne mà ¦g Þà ¦re sawle Þe biÞ synna ful gold to geoce for Godes egsan’. The placement of ‘synna ful’ at the end of the line also juxtaposes it with ‘gold’, demonstrating through comparison the insignificance of earthly matters. The implication of God’s wrath upon facing a life that has been full of sin contradicts a complete rejection of the past, however; the previous lines have described loss through glory being brought low (‘Blà ¦d is gehnà ¦ged’) and old age overtaking each man, stripping him of his friends of old (‘yldo him on fareà °Ã¢â‚¬â„¢- the subject ‘yldo’ and verb ‘fareà °Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ surrounding the object to convey the total defeat from every side). This loss of the world they knew, through old age and eventually death, would seem to make the past entirely irrelevant: the kingdom of heaven cannot be affected by what you gather materially on earth. This mention of sins being brought in front of God, on the other hand, demonstrates that while the possessions and people of your past are now relics of a foreign country, the contents of your soul remain blighted or blessed by your actions during life thereby making your past still relevant in the afterlife. Even if the practical luxuries of ‘ealle onmedlan eorÞan rices’ (all the pomp of the kingdoms of earth) fade away, the past and your actions matter as the speaker stresses the importance of a hypothetical man being ‘gewis werum, wisum clà ¦ne’- reliable in his pledges and clean in his ways- in order to reach heaven. The man’s past actions define the kind of moral character he will present for judgement in the afterlife. This direct Christian admonition at the end provides context for the misery of exile to the elements described from the start; he is ultimately not concerned with the earthly matters those on the land enjoy, because none of that affects a path into heaven as only morality can. The presentation of Christianity at the culmination of The Wanderer likewise affects how the speaker’s relationship to the past is presented. As Bjork argues, the poem works in an envelope pattern, developing the scale from personal experience to universal truths as its central speaker progresses from ‘anhaga’ or ‘eardstapa’ to ‘snottor on mode’ by sitting apart in secret meditation (‘sundor à ¦t rune’) and accepting both the transience of earthly matters and the reality of his own fate. In this way, the Wanderer turns his hopeless, directionless exile of the Germanic tradition into a heaven-bound journey of Christian exile and derives hope from being separated from his past. This interpretation of the poem charting his acceptance of his past’s unattainability explains the journey from specific despair (the initial description of ‘eardstapa’ as ‘earfeÞa gemyndig, wraÞa wà ¦lsleahta, winemà ¦ ga hryre’ a triadic structure of absolute misery that intensifies in specificity by naming his miseries, the battles which caused him grief, and then the deaths of kinsmen as the reason battles caused him grief) to assurance that ‘it will be well for him’, which could be otherwise be read as contradictory. The acceptance of his fate could also, however, be seen purely as rejection of the past society he was a part of: rather than a serene acceptance of heaven as ultimately more important after meditation, the conclusion could be a decision to dismiss any connection to his past due to the pain it is causing him during his current exile. Even if this reaction would continue the bitter, grieving tone from earlier in the poem more cohesively, Bjork’s interpretation of a reasoned meditation on transience is probably correct as the conclusion is a sincere assertion of Christian ‘are’ or ‘mercy’, and it supports the theme of using even y our painful past as experience (‘a share of winters’) to inform wisdom. The concept of the past being a ‘foreign country’ evokes the idea of extreme separation; the current lives of these poems’ speakers are different enough from their past that the Wanderer sees the battles which stripped himself of his kinfolk as equivalent to those of an ancient civilization, and the Seafarer describes normal life on land as ‘dead’ and ‘transitory’ as he has found greater meaning in the idea of heaven. The actual absence of the past can be questioned in The Seafarer, however, as its focus on Christianity leads to acknowledgement of morality influencing judgement in the afterlife: your past actions remain even if the earthly results of them do not. In The Wanderer, also, the wisdom gained by the eponymous ‘eardstepa’ allows him to meditate and see the Christian hope inherent to his exile; his struggles constitute experience and therefore insight. In both cases, the spiritual ramifications of their past are not transient, even if the material ones are. Works Cited ‘The Wanderer’ and ‘The Seafarer’, in ‘Old and Middle English: An Anthology’, ed. Elaine Treharne (2000), Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 42-53. Carol Braun Pasternack, ‘Anonymous polyphony and The Wanderer’s textuality’, Anglo-Saxon England 20 (1991), 99-122. Ida L. Gordan, ‘The Seafarer’, Oxford: Alden Press, (1979) 26. Christine Fell, ‘Perceptions of transience’, in ‘The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature’, eds. Malcolm Godden and Michael Lapidge (1991), 172-189. Anita R. Reidinger, â€Å"Home’ in ‘Old English Poetry’, NM96 (1995): 51-59. Robert E. Bjork, ‘â€Å"Sundor aet rune†: the voluntary exile of the Wanderer’, Neophilologus 73 (1989), 119-129.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Evaluation Of A Semi Structured Interview - 1138 Words

Analysis of Results In order to meet the study objectives, in addition to the case study, a semi-structured interview was conducted using non-random sampling. As respondents of the interview had to have particular characteristics such as ability to value property and knowledge about the property market, estate agents were contacted. A total of 7 interviews were conducted with estate agents in the West Hampstead/Kilburn area. The interviews lasted approximately 10 minutes. The participants were as follows: Table 2: Participants Participant Company 1 Maygrove Estates 2 Hunters 3 Foxtons 4 Foxtons 5 Dutch and Dutch 6 Plasso 7 Plasso All the participants had between 6 months to 6 years of experience of being an estate agent. As stated previously, recording the interviews was not allowed due to confidentiality reasons therefore there might be a slight bias in the responses as they were written by the interviewer and not transcribed. For each question the analysis involved coding the answer by placing it into a category. Once the categories were established they were placed into a table and the frequency of each was recorded. The method of analysis is a descriptive method of frequency distribution. For each question a table of the frequency of distribution is presented together with a bar chart followed by an analysis of the results and discussion. The raw data is available in the Appendix 7. Section 1: Understanding sustainability Question 1. In your opinion do buyersShow MoreRelatedThe Role Of Interview Data Research And Discuss The Key Characteristics Of The Processes Of Data Collection And Analysis When Using1669 Words   |  7 PagesCritically evaluate the role of interview data in qualitative research and discuss the key characteristics of the processes of data collection and analysis when using interviews as main data source. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Against Gun Rights An Argumentative Essay - 1628 Words

Gun Rights 1-Introduction This paper argues the hypothesis that guns are dangerous and maybe some terrorists will use these guns to kill in order to be in power. There are lots of persons, corporations and bureaucrats and those who advocate gun rights who are in total agreement with free flow of arms. This paper sets out to show why this is very dangerous. Those who do not agree with these propositions would find ample material to question their views. Thus in length the hypothesis that is sought to be proved is: Free availability of arms and arming nations that are troubled will lead to escalation of terrorism and threats both aboard and at home in the US The background Beginning with the recent developments in the Middle East the point can be made. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Marketing Plan Starbucks free essay sample

Marketing Plan: Starbucks Revitalizing Teas Abstract A marketing plan for Starbucks Coffee Company for the introduction of a new line of tea to the beverage menu includes a multi faceted approach. Beginning with an organizational overview, and following with the new product description, SWOTT analysis, marketing research, segmentation, differentiation and positioning, product life cycle, the marketing mix, budget, and finally, control mechanisms, the marketing plan comes to life. Organizational Overview Founded in 1971, Starbucks Coffee Company’s first location was in Seattle’s Pike Place Market and after 35 years, Starbucks has grown to over 11,500 outlets worldwide serving approximately 40 million customers every week (Starbucks. com). Starbuck’s mission statement is â€Å"to establish Starbucks as the Premier purveyor of the finest coffee in the world while maintaining our uncompromising principles as we grow. (Starbucks, 2005) Currently, the marketing strategy involves positioning a local Starbucks outlet as a third place (besides home and work) to spend time in, and the stores are designed to make this easy and comfortable (Wikipedia, 2006). It is not uncommon to see customers in stores for hours at a time. This strategy has proven very successful, but to stay ahead of the competition the Company plans to selectively pursue other opportunities to leverage the Starbucks brand through the introduction of new products. What is Starbucks? This may seem like a funny question, but the truth is, Starbuck’s is a well-known name. Major cities across the North America have at least one Starbuck’s location. This organization understands the importance of marketing. Starbucks created a product that has in turn delivered more and caused more products and services to be created. The rapid growth and expansion of the company can be heavily attributed to organization’s use of the marketing mix. Kotler and Keller in Marketing Management’s twelfth edition have also documented the success of the firm and the firm’s effective use of marketing. The organization strives to continue marketing to all consumers by introducing products that raise consumer interest from all types of people. Starbuck’s does not use a major commercial advertising campaign to drive its sales. Instead Starbuck’s can be seen everywhere. The Starbuck’s cup is the most effective marketing and advertising tool the company has to this day. One can find a Starbuck’s cup in movies and in television series. Additionally, sales are driven because someone in most companies across America is tasked with making the classic â€Å"Starbuck’s stop† in the morning. Each year the company has seen phenomenal gains. Last year alone net revenues increased 20 percent to $6. 4 billion. The company feels that by staying aggressive it can keep growing successfully every year. New Product Description To keep growing the company also needs new product lines, and one that is being considered is a new custom line of hot and cold beverages for the public. Starbucks’ customers have been asking for specialized teas and now is the time to start the research and preliminary marketing to see if a new market really does exist. The tea line is not to take away from the company’s coffee sales but rather to increase its’ customer counts and sales numbers. A new tea line may encourage those who normally would not visit Starbucks stores to now have a reason to come in. Before just ‘throwing’ a new product to the public, Starbucks wants to make sure it will indeed be a profitable investment. Starbucks will need to do extensive research into the product line and also its customer base. Starbucks is the most familiar name in the world when it comes to coffee, can it continue their success into the world of teas? The research will be a good indicator of what Starbucks can expect. Starbucks prides itself on having a variety of beverages available to the public, and services customers’ needs culturally and globally. This is why Starbucks has decided to come out with a new line of iced or just chilled flavored tea for our customers. These teas are multi-flavored teas and can easily be purchased in retail stores or at any of our Starbucks stores globally. These teas consist of five main flavors, and can be added if successful or as time goes by. The flavors are as follows: †¢Twisted Lime Tea †¢Rockin’ Raspberry Tea Lemon Surprise Tea †¢Cool Blueberry Tea †¢Invigorating Green Tea The name that has been chosen as a marketable idea is â€Å"Starbucks Revitalizing Teas†. In addition to brewed coffee and espresso beverages, Starbucks shops also serve hot or cold Green Tea and Tazo beverages. These new beverages of different flavored teas should add more value t o the company and fulfill the consumers’ need for a variety of flavored teas. Today, there are many critics of Starbuck’s and a lot of people are saying the globe needs to reduce caffeine consumption or that most budgets are not working because of addictions to Starbuck’s. The firm now has the opportunity to offer many other drinks that are healthy and tasty without getting away from what made the organization great. First it was the coffee, CD’s, and hot spots – now it is time for a new product that will incorporate another favorite drink. Tea – Flavored Tea! The organization has the ability to continue marketing through it existent strategies, while adding new strategies that will strengthen the brand and increase sales. SWOTT Analysis A SWOTT, (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats, and Trends) analysis on the new tea line will also be conducted. For our research a SWOTT analysis will be necessary to evaluate strengths to be utilized and what kind of obstacles may be in the way. Strengths †¢Starbucks Corporation is a very profitable organization, generating more the $6 billion dollars in 2005. †¢The new line of teas will capitalize on a globally recognized name. †¢The teas can be served in store or sold retail, similar to the coffee drinks Weaknesses †¢The new line of teas may not sell well in colder climate stores. †¢The teas will be higher priced than other flavored teas sold retail. †¢The five flavors may not appeal to all consumers Opportunities †¢This new line of teas will allow Starbucks one more way to produce profits. †¢This new line of teas will bring in new consumers, those who don’t usually frequent Starbucks. †¢This line of teas will allow Starbucks to expand their retail drink selection Threats †¢The competitive market for tea drinks sold either in a store or retail location. †¢Competitors that market flavored teas (e. g. Pepsi Cola, Coke) with a larger distribution market. †¢Who knows if the market for flavored teas will continue to stay in favor with consumers? Trends Obviously, the trend these days is leaning toward upscale coffee houses. †¢Starbucks is synonymous with hot and cold beverages; the natural course to take is to add a specialized line of tea. Marketing Research To develop the marketing strategy Starbucks needs a thorough consumer analysis. What are the demographics of the Starbucks customer? This could be determined by primary research of intern al data from our customer database. Who is their target consumer? Secondary research into tea drinking consumers would be needed to define the target market. What are the psychographics? What stimulates the desire for iced tea? Starbucks will need human behavior research that also includes the geographical considerations of its customers. Since iced tea is consumed much more in the summertime and in warmer climates, Starbucks will need to know what kind impact its marketing efforts will have and what strategies they want to pursue. Marketing research includes â€Å"defining the problem and research objectives, developing the research plan, implementing the research plan, and interpreting and reporting the findings. (Armstrong, G and Kotler, P, 2005) Marketing research for the new iced tea product line at Starbucks will require information about iced tea drinking consumers. This will require descriptive research, to understand things like the market potential for the iced tea line, demographics, and attitudes of consumers who buy ice tea. Most of this information can be gathered from secondary sources like Simmons Market Research Bureau ( www. smrb. com), LEXIS-NEXIS (www. lexis-nexis. com), and/ or CompuServe (www. ompuserve. com). These databases provide information on consumer patterns, marketing publications, trends, promotional techniques, consumer demographics and research reports. The marketing research needs information on the demographic, economic, and lifestyle of current iced tea consumers, their usage patterns, packaging preferences, and forecasts of the impact the new line of products will have on store sales. In addition to the secondary sources, primary data from the company will provide research information. Other considerations for the marketing research include the geographical area to be introduced to our new product. Iced tea is a summertime and warm weather beverage, and unlike coffee, iced tea is expected to be more seasonal with regard to consumption habits. Survey research at different Starbucks locations will provide the descriptive information needed to explore the Starbucks consumer’s attitudes and preferences toward the new product line. With this information in hand the interpretation and reporting of findings can be done. Segmentation Market segmentation is the segmentation of markets into homogenous groups of customers, each of them reacting differently to promotion, communication, pricing and other variables of the marketing mix. Market segments should be formed in way that differences between buyers within each segment are as small as possible. Thus, every segment can be addressed with an individually targeted marketing mix (Decision Analysis, Inc. , 2006). At Starbucks, the concern is with segmentation criteria and being able to target a segment of the market, which will lead to greater sales of a new line of teas. This is going to be the concentration of a marketing effort to dominate a market niche. For Starbucks, market segmentation is the process of identifying and targeting groups of individuals who are similar to one another. Markets can be segmented in many different ways: by product or service needs, by sensitivity to price, by geographic area, by demographic segment, or by psychographics and lifestyles. Successful segmentation will depend upon understanding what consumers want, how different locations of consumers differ from one another, and how these different types of consumers decide among products. In Starbuck’s case these analytic techniques will be used to organize customers into groups with these similar attitudes, needs, and desires, (Starbucks, 2006). Criteria There are a huge number of variables that could be used for market segmentation. They comprise easy to determine demographic factors as well as variables on user behavior or customer preferences. The following table shows the most important traditional variables for segmentation that will be used in the study: Consumer Markets Geographic: †¢Land or region †¢Rural or metropolitan area Demographic: Age, sex, marital status †¢Income, occupation, education †¢Religion, nationality, ethnical group Psychographic: †¢Social status †¢Lifestyle-type Behavioral: †¢Intensity of product use †¢Brand loyalty †¢User behaviors Since customer orientation of organizations is growing, segmentation as the basis for establishing customer relationships and customer loyalty gains importance . In this context, the elements of the loyalty ladder model could be used as segmentation variables: Marketers have to choose those variables that are relevant for segmenting the market for a particular product. The basic rule is to focus on a limited number of important variables. To segment the market into too many small, slightly distinct segments would require splitting up the marketing budget into too many ineffective chunks. As already stated, segmentation is the basis for developing targeted and effective marketing plans. Furthermore, analysis of market segments enables decisions about intensity of marketing activities in particular segments. A segment-orientated marketing approach generally offers a range of advantages for both, businesses and customers. Organizational Buyers and Consumers When purchasing products organizational customers are particularly concerned about quality, service, and price. To achieve an exact level of quality, organizations often buy products on the basis of a set of expressed characteristics, called specifications. Because services have such a direct influence on a firms costs, sales, and profits, matters as market information, on-time delivery, and availability of parts are crucial to an organizational buyer. Although organizational customers do not depend solely n price to decide which products to buy, price is of prime concern because it directly influences profitability. Organizational buyers use several purchasing methods, including description, inspection, sampling, and negotiation (Perreault McCarthy, 2004). Consumers are mainly concerned with price and the value that the product will bring to them. In terms of the new line of teas for Starbucks there are numerous buyers. Starbucks should focus on organizations that already currently carry their coffee drinks. These organizations would be grocery stores (e. . Ralph’s), gas stations (e. g. Mobil) and club stores (e. g. Costco). In terms of consumers, Starbucks can focus on their regular consumers and draw more health conscious consumers with this line of teas. Starbucks can focus on commuters, stay- at-home mothers, college aged children and elderly. Differentiation and Positioning â€Å"The aim of marketing is to affect how customers think about and behave toward the organization and its marketing offers. To affect the what, when, and how of buying behavior, marketers must first understand the why. (Armstrong, G, and Kotler, P, 2005) One consumer behavior expert notes that 95% of the thought, emotion and learning that drive buying decisions occur in the unconscious mind. Some of these factors are cultural, social, personal, and psychological. Armstrong and Kotler continue, â€Å"Culture is the most basic cause of a p erson’s wants and behavior. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behavior may vary greatly from country to country. † Of particular note the recent cultural shifts toward health and fitness may impact the way Starbucks will market its new tea. Culture can be broken down into subcultures like ethnic groups and social class, which can also impact behavior. Social factors like membership groups directly influence behavior and reference groups by way of comparison indirectly impact buying decisions. â€Å"Family members have a strong influence buyer behavior† as well as a person’s role and status in a family, club or organization. Personal factors such as age, life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, personality and self-concept are also factors that influence buying behavior. Four major psychological factors like motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes, further influence buying choices. Motivation is driven sequentially by different needs as priority needs are met. For example, a person is motivated to satisfy hunger and thirst as basic needs. But as these needs are met a person becomes motivated to meet safety, social and other needs. Perception is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world. These perceptions influence consumer purchase decisions. Learning impacts buyers’ behavior based on prior experience with products or brands. This leads to beliefs and attitudes toward products and influence purchase decisions. These factors all combine to impact consumer behavior. The decision process is made up of five stages starting with need recognition, and progressing through an information search, an evaluation of alternatives, lead to a purchase decision, which is followed by post purchase behavior. Marketers are well advised to focus on this entire buying process, as opposed to just the purchase decision. When the purchase decision involves a new product a process defined as adoption applies. This starts with making the consumer aware of the new product. Leading to interest in the product, followed by an evaluation of whether the product makes sense for the purchaser. If the purchase is made the next step is the trial. If the product is accepted it becomes adopted and the consumer will make full and regular use of the new product. The rate of adoption of new products is influenced by five characteristics: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability. Other influencers can be initial and ongoing costs, risk and uncertainty, and social approval. â€Å"The new-product marketer has to research all these factors when developing the new product and its marketing. † (Armstrong and Kotler, 2005) Product Life Cycle The Product Life Cycle (PLC) is based upon the biological life cycle. For example, a seed is planted (introduction), it begins to sprout (growth), t shoots out leaves and puts down roots as it becomes an adult (maturity), after a long period as an adult the plant begins to shrink and die out (decline). In theory its the same for our new tea line. After our period of marketing research and development, the tea line will be introduced or launched into the market. It then gains more and more customers as it grows; eventually the market will stabilize and our tea line becomes mature; then after a period of time the product may be overtaken by the development and the introduction of other competitors brands, it goes into decline and maybe even is withdrawn. However, we don’t anticipate our competition to take away tea drinkers, when in fact we are the ones who will be taking customers away. Strategies for the Product Life Cycle In our case the need for immediate profit is not a pressure. The strength of our business is coffee and we can afford the time to market and carry our new teas longer while introducing them into our market place. The tea line is to be promoted in order to create consumer awareness that Starbucks now carries a terrific line of teas. There are competitors around every corner, but we feel that a classy advertising campaign will bring in new customer to sample these teas. Growth Advertising spending is going to be high to begin with, which will focus upon building brand name recognition. The bell curve for this can be anticipated as a slow curve upward only because tea is available in all stores and we are anticipating slow sales in the beginning. What we offer though is an atmosphere that other tea and coffee houses don’t offer at this time. Maturity Coffee is our core business; we know that sales will take time to mature. A slow growth upward then gaining a leveling off period in year three of the program is what we anticipate. Coffee is our main emphasis and the tea line again is geared at bringing in the friend or customer that normally wouldn’t come in to our stores. Decline Tea will never be the strong seller that coffee is for us. Overall, if the new tea line brings in 3 cents for every dollar we make, we’ll consider this a success. Our advertising dollars are 5 cents per dollar for the tea line, but customer count more than makes up for slower sales and the two-cent difference. Problems with Product Life Cycle In our past though, very few products follow such a prescriptive cycle. The length of each stage varies enormously. The decisions of marketers can change the stage, for example from maturity to decline by price-cutting. This new tea line may never go through each stage. It could go from introduction to decline and it is not always easy to tell which stage the product is in. Remember that PLC is another marketing tool. Marketing Mix Product Starbuck’s prides itself on putting out only the finest products to sustain its market share in today’s consumer on-the-go quick serve coffee and tea beverage industry. With the five flavors that introduced in the product line, the following attributes are essential to successful launch of this product line of flavored teas. †¢The company will be able to capitalize on the existing strength of the Starbuck name in today’s marketplace. †¢Starbucks commitment to only produce quality products to its consumers. †¢These exciting flavors will entice customers to expand their drink selection when visiting a Starbucks. †¢The company will be able to take advantage of their established distribution channels. The company is in a strong financial position to make this a successful campaign. †¢These new five flavored teas are not only recognized in the United States, but globally as well. The above attributes lend themselves to a successful launch of this new line for Starbucks. Discover the entire new tea selection at Starbucks stores nationwide and hopefully in retail stores as well. Teas have been a part of Starbucks lineup sinc e 1999, and the new products aim to tantalize the consumer with a new experience with five more flavors of freshly brewed teas. Price Starbucks has many things to consider when deciding on a price for their new iced tea line. There are several influences that will affect the final price of the product line. Starbucks will have to consider several factors pertaining specifically to the actual market. Some things that will influence the price in regard to the market are competition (and their prices), consumer anticipation, the goal of Starbucks and their brand, and the flex in demand for their product. Other factors that influence Starbucks include the cost of manufacturing, selling, advertising, and profit goals (Williams, 2005). Currently Starbucks finds their prices moving with the price Starbucks pays for its coffee, in addition to their brand name; they have been successful at marketing and selling their coffee drinks above the competitions’ prices, and will continue doing so for as long as possible. Starbucks will sell the iced tea line in bottles in retail stores, next to their coffee drinks, even in the coolers. The pricing of the coffee drinks range from $1. 79 to $3. 79. The pricing strategy for the iced tea blends will range from $1. 39 to $1. 79 for consumers, and the price could be higher depending on the location. For example, in resort or vacation areas, the iced tea blends could be sold at prices higher than $1. 79. The pricing strategy is due in part to the competition, and the advertising costs for the product just being introduced into the market. The iced tea blends will also be served fresh at the counter of almost every Starbucks outlet. The price for the iced tea blends at the counter will be slightly higher than the iced tea in the bottles within retail stores. The presentation of the iced tea at the counter increases the price, utilizing the same concept as Starbucks’ bottled Frappuccinos. The price will begin at $2. 5 at the counter. Starbucks has the distinct opportunity of being able to hold the largest majority of the market when it comes to retail coffee and variety drinks. The Starbucks brand comes with a level of admiration from others. This will allow the product to be introduced with the appropriate pricing that will maximize profits and build interests. Starbucks wi ll consciously set prices with defined objectives to increase interest from the consumer in order to gain a repetitive customer base for the new line of teas. The feeling of the organization as a whole is one that has set all Starbucks products a part from the competition. Recently, there has been an emergence of new coffeehouses, but the firm feels that continuing to sell a high-quality product and fair premium price will continue to increase profits. The pricing strategy will not seek to meet any status quo objectives, because the new line of teas is just that†¦a new line of teas. This is a new product that will be solely introduced by Starbucks. There is no need to meet or beat competitors. The pricing strategy will reflect more of a one-price policy that is focused and properly timed. The teas will need an introductory price and regular price. Use these two pricing strategies will both gain customer interest and maximize profits. Both pricing policies will far exceed the transportation and other built-in cost to get the teas to the customer. Introductory price dealing will attract customers. This attraction will help the organization to monitor how popular the drinks will be and to get customers interested in another product line at Starbucks. One set introductory price that does not include coupon, and special pricing for different customers initially will gain more confidence from a broader base. Skimming price policy will be the final destination for the product line. As with all Starbucks products this pricing policy has proven to be effective and this product line will not be an exception to the rule. The introductory price will run for an indefinite period of time in which the firm feels total interest has been gained, which may be a period of one year leading to the next Summer when the final price will be introduced. Place Starbucks specific plan of distribution for their new line of iced teas will focus on retail distribution through their currently established distributors. Starbucks will also sell the new iced teas in their outlets in bottled form and personalized fresh brewed form at the counter, which could draw even more customers into outlets. Starbucks will be using brighter colors in the packaging of their new iced tea line while promoting a refreshing and relaxing experience. Starbucks has been very successful in their distribution of Starbucks coffee items in grocery stores, even opening outlets within stores, such as Safeway. Their decision to focus on maintaining and using existing vendors is based upon the growth of current sales, and the anticipation of future sales predictions (Kim, 1998). Starbucks has an agreement with Sysco Corporation to distribute products to â€Å"non-contracted customers (2003). † The contract between Sysco and Starbucks does not expire until 2008; therefore Starbucks will be able to distribute their new line of iced teas in the same way as their other products, in the same shelf area as current coffee drinks. Within the Starbucks outlets, they will also be incorporating the help of their employees to promote the new product by making a suggestion of the new iced tea to all customers, to make the product stand out and promoted. The goal is to introduce the iced tea line in bottled form in grocery stores with current distributors very quickly after it has been introduced at the counter within the outlets, if not the same time. Starbucks may consider introducing their iced tea line into international markets, but will monitor the success rate of the line prior. One of our strategies will be to service the existing customers; however, retailing is not out of the question. It is easier and less expensive to promote our new product line of teas to our existing customers who are already accustomed to going to Starbucks. In fact, it is estimated that acquiring a new customer costs five to eight times as much as keeping an existing one. Our goal is to keep building relationships between our existing customers and make new ones as well. The key here is retaining the current customers, make them try our new product line, and expand demand into the retail stores as well. Promotion To achieve the stated objective Starbucks plans to publish brochures introducing the new flavor of teas along with all drinks offered. The brochures will be left on the tables for customers to read. There will also be a brochure display right up front where the customer orders their coffee drinks. While they wait they can view the brochure or take it with them. Starbucks would not be adding too much additional costs in their advertising budget, they will just add on an additional informational tidbit in the publishing of the new flavors of teas information in the brochures and posters that they print up to promote their stores. Personal Selling At Starbucks there would be the greeter at the counter when taking the customers order. Greeting them, asking what they would like to drink and stating â€Å"by the way, are you aware of our new flavors of Tazo teas? † The greeter could then hand them a brochure and then get their order. By having the consumer walk out of the store with a brochure or having read the brochure while in the store will cause a chain reaction of the consumer telling another consumer of what they recently found out about the new flavors being offered. By starting the personal selling while a current customer visits Starbucks and the consumer leaves with new beneficial knowledge they pass it on to others and this would create a new customer. Sales Promotion Discount sales coupons in local newspapers with the slogan â€Å"A cup of Tazo tea will Keep You on Your Feet†. These coupons would be worth a 10% discount on a cup of coffee or specialty drink. This would bring new customers in to try Starbucks. Everyone likes to save money on merchandise or food items. Direct Communication Starbucks has a website; www. starbucks. com, where they can promote a piece to highlight the new flavors of Tazo teas, much like they do now with the coffee of the month (www. starbucks. com). Starbucks promotes their stores within the community with the feel of part of the neighborhood that they establish in a new store and the fact they have the best cup of coffee around. The new flavors of Tazo teas are just additional sales pitch to add to their information to fit in with the communities where they have established store locations. Advertising Advertising, personal (face-to-face) or direct selling, sales promotion, and relationship building are the primary methods companies use to promote their products (Armstrong, G, and Kotler, P, 2005). At Starbucks these methods will all be utilized in promoting the new iced tea line of products. Tactics Advertising is often used to make consumers aware of a product’s special low price or its benefits. But, at Starbucks an even more important function of advertising is to create an image that consumers associate with our product like existing product lines or in retail stores, known as the brand image (Microsoft Encarta 2006). The brand image goes far beyond the functional characteristics of the product. For example, a Cappuccino drink may have a particular taste that is one of its benefits. But when consumers think of it, they not only think of its taste, but they may also associate it with high energy, extreme action, unconventional behavior, and youth. All those meanings have been added to our new line of Teas by means of advertising along with the existing beverages at Starbucks. Consumers frequently buy the product not only for its functional characteristics but also because they want to be identified with the image associated with the brand. By adding meaning to a product, like our five sensational new Teas, advertising also adds value. Budget One of the most difficult financial decisions facing businesses is how much to spend on marketing and promotion. Since Starbucks does not do much traditional advertising, it is quite difficult to determine the necessary amounts at this time to spend on marketing the new flavors of teas. For the new flavors of teas, the marketing budget is primarily comprised of marketing communications and marketing research. Marketing Communications activities include: †¢Brochures, Newspaper Advertisements †¢Public relations, charitable contributions Marketing Research expenditures include: †¢Market size Market opportunity studies Control Mechanisms As Starbucks implements this marketing plan feedback and control mechanisms need to be in place. The need to track results and monitor new developments is constant. The marketplace will change; and when it does the company will need to review and revise the marketing plan, including programs, strategies and objectives. After the introducto ry period, the company will perform an evaluation of the performance of the new line of teas. This evaluation will include the profit margin, market share, promotional effectiveness, and market penetration of the Revitalizing Teas. The actual performance of the tea to the objectives defined will be considered as indicators to be used to define areas of success and opportunity. Conclusion In order to stay ahead of the competition, a business needs to either keep refining itself so that its products are better and or expand into new markets. Starbucks is the world’s most familiar name when it comes to coffee and they feel that they became the greatest name because they roast and brew the best coffee available. After careful research Starbucks decided to increase its customer base by adding a new product line. The research showed that a new line of teas will bring more customers into Starbucks stores throughout the world and more customers will allow them to keep growing and expanding. At this time Starbucks feels that the sky’s the limit. By introducing this specialized tea line Starbucks will find out how much it will grow and what they can expect in the future with new products. Blindingly offering a product to the public would be foolishness. Researching the market and customers is the first step in introducing a new product to the public. http://www.phoenix.edu/ https://cyber.harvard.edu/archived_content/people/edelman/google-safesearch/sites-B.html https://www.decisionanalyst.com/analytics/marketsegmentation/ http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Columbia_Sportswear/en-en/ http://www.businessplans.org/segment.html https://lessonplans.btskinner.com/genbus.html http://www.phoenix.edu/students/how-it-works/online-resources/technology-resource-library.html https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wirtschaft_Seattles https://www.starbucks.com/about-us https://www.starbucks.com/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starbucks http://www.srmgmtserv.com/contact.html

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Page And Plant free essay sample

In April, five kids and I went to Boston Garden to see the Page and Plant concert. As we rode the train, we discussed how good we thought they would be. Basically everyone was going to the concert with high expectations. Jimmy Page and Robert Plant did not let us down. They exceeded mine and everyones expectations. We got to the concert early and waited through the opening band, Rusted Root. Before Page and Plant went on, they lit up the stage with huge lights that projected rainbows all around the stadium. When Page and Plant started playing, we were speechless. During the first song (which I cant even remember the name of), we just stood in awe. The second song, Ramble On, snapped us out of our daze and we started to sing along with the 20,000 people there. Page and Plant got the crowd into the concert with songs like Gallows Pole, The Song Remains the Same and Black Dog. We will write a custom essay sample on Page And Plant or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One high point was when Page and Plant went from The Song Remains The Same right into an energized version of the Doors Break on Through and then without stopping into Dazed and Confused. Page and Plant amazed the audience with the variety of music they played. They played heavier songs like Ramble On and Black Dog to their more blues-oriented songs like Since Ive Been Loving You. They kept audience on their feet, wondering what would be next. For their last song Page and Plant played Kashmir accompanied by an orchestra; this was the best version of Kashmir I have ever heard. The music from the orchestra and from Jimmy Pages guitar sent shivers down my spine. We left the concert with Kashmir in our heads and we still havent gotten over how moving it was. One main thing that stood out about this concert was the range of ages of the audience. We saw people from seven to at least 50 or 60 years old. One thing I thought about was where could you find people 50 to 20 to 10 all at the same place for the same reason, having a good time together

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Free Essays on Humanties Primary Source

Analysis of Art â€Å"The Maids of Honor† by Diego Rodriguez de Silva Velasquez is a canvas painting created in 1656-57. This piece of art is rather dark, Velasquez is controlling what it is that you see. He uses natural light such as from a window and shows how some parts of a room may be seen and other parts not. We see three maids of honor dressed in elaborate clothing preparing for a painted portrait. Servants are also in the room assisting with the activity. The artist has painted himself in the picture along with the King sneaking a peak at the preparations. Everyone seems to be looking in your direction to infer that you are in the picture or they are looking in to a mirror. As an observer of this painting I feel that a very important activity is taking place. The use of straight lines have made the figures of importance very clear. These lines are somewhat defined leaving a crisp picture. I feel this picture is very direct in imaging but confusing of what is happening. The use of color is very calm, cool and kind of vivid, only being able to see that natural light allows. The shapes in the picture seems to be people and objects that are easily recognized, yet the picture also creates an illusion and hides what is really going on (ie, what are they looking at). This picture has depth with a since of a crowd but also an impression that there is a lot of room. This painting shows how the artist used the brush to imply actual creases in the fabric to give it a real appeareance. This painting leaves a question for the viewer, a question that is complex and confusing. I feel this painting is trying to break through the bounders restricted by the canvas and try to involve the viewers. The artist restricts what we see; color creates us to look at different places in the picture. The over design makes you feel that there is more to see than meets the eye. I would value understanding the picture, being able to s... Free Essays on Humanties Primary Source Free Essays on Humanties Primary Source Analysis of Art â€Å"The Maids of Honor† by Diego Rodriguez de Silva Velasquez is a canvas painting created in 1656-57. This piece of art is rather dark, Velasquez is controlling what it is that you see. He uses natural light such as from a window and shows how some parts of a room may be seen and other parts not. We see three maids of honor dressed in elaborate clothing preparing for a painted portrait. Servants are also in the room assisting with the activity. The artist has painted himself in the picture along with the King sneaking a peak at the preparations. Everyone seems to be looking in your direction to infer that you are in the picture or they are looking in to a mirror. As an observer of this painting I feel that a very important activity is taking place. The use of straight lines have made the figures of importance very clear. These lines are somewhat defined leaving a crisp picture. I feel this picture is very direct in imaging but confusing of what is happening. The use of color is very calm, cool and kind of vivid, only being able to see that natural light allows. The shapes in the picture seems to be people and objects that are easily recognized, yet the picture also creates an illusion and hides what is really going on (ie, what are they looking at). This picture has depth with a since of a crowd but also an impression that there is a lot of room. This painting shows how the artist used the brush to imply actual creases in the fabric to give it a real appeareance. This painting leaves a question for the viewer, a question that is complex and confusing. I feel this painting is trying to break through the bounders restricted by the canvas and try to involve the viewers. The artist restricts what we see; color creates us to look at different places in the picture. The over design makes you feel that there is more to see than meets the eye. I would value understanding the picture, being able to s...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Case study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 49

Case Study Example This value chain management ensures timely delivery of the products in the market. Moreover, the products are low cost and relatively affordable. Zara is has a customer-centered approach to the market. Besides having to consider great value and quality, the company also uses its resources to ensure that the products reaching the customers is at low cost. Providing fashion at low cost has remained one of the company’s strength and the means behind the market share claim. The target market for the clothing is the customers with medium to high purchasing power. This includes those individuals who are fashion conscious and who want to look fashionable at all times. In my opinion, this helps the company to compete well with other fashion companies in the world. Being customer-centered, the company has market researchers in every part of the world where their presence is felt. This allows the company to respond directly to consumers’ needs. Further, the company has focused on research-based designing and innovativeness. This helps to create brands that the consumers can appreciate and that are ready to capture their attention and hence compete well in the market (Kumar, 2005). The success of any company depends on both the internal and external environment of the organization. Zara Company has a strong organization structure that ensures its success. With a well-structured management and a long-time experience in the market, the company has an easy time navigating the market and creating new environments. The company’s presence in 74 countries in the world also contribute to its success. This is because for a company to be successful. It must be able to secure a wide customer base that will ensure maximum and consistent source of revenue. This expansive strategy has allowed the company to be relevant to the emerging markets and to create a market share for itself as compared to many of the